If we did not have an values in common, it would be exceedingly difficult to agree on any one course of action. Logically Calvin concluded that if we have no control over our actions due to being made to act in a certain way, we cannot be considered responsible for them, thus we cannot make a moral decision as the decision and way we act was already determined by God.
Most candidates were able to contrast this with other hard determinists. Critically assess the claim that free will and determinism are compatible. In this phase people begin to view the intentions behind actions as more important than their consequences.
Discuss with reference to Natural Law. It is not a process which can easily be based on a determinate set of rules.
Good moral decision making involves a knowing the facts of the situation, and b careful consideration of the moral values some call these principles that are relevant to a given situation.
Psychologists are now testing the ideas of philosophers, and are beginning to uncover the role of emotions in moral decision making and the form of their interaction with reason. These facts might be ascertained through science, or just through the experiences of people who have observed forests over long periods of time.
Hard determinism states that people do not have free will to act in moral situations. For example, you and I may both agree that telling the truth and avoiding harming others are important.
These include among others our relationships to our family, friends, clients or patients, our students, our workplace, our profession, our religious or cultural traditions, our fellow citizens, and our nation.
This suggests that morality is a system of "shared" values which "justify" actions.
Culture and the quest for universal principals in moral reasoning. The following is a sample exam question written by OCR: To what extent is Virtue Ethics helpful when making decisions about extramarital sex.
Critically assess the view that we are not responsible for our evil actions. Also, it is often the case that others will have to carry out, or help to carry out, the decisions we make. Therefore we cannot be held morally responsible or blameworthy for their actions because their actions are determined.
There seemed to be a very real discrepancy within responses between the quality of the argument, knowledge and discussion on Hard Determinism and the other two approaches.
But morality generally comes into play when people interact with each other. A standard example of a context in which it seems right to lie is this: A slightly different theory suggests that reason plays a bigger role in our moral decisions -- but still not as big as proponents of human rationality would like to believe.
This stage focuses on a view of society as a whole and following the laws and rules of that society. However, even if we all agree on which values are important, we may still disagree over the relative importance of the various values.
Assess the view that religious ethics are of no use when it comes to matters of business. These steps absolutely will not guarantee that a good decision is made, but they should at least help assure that decisions are not made in an overly hasty manner, or without sufficient consideration of the subtleties of the problem.
It is crucial to be sensitive to the fact that many technical questions have important moral components. On others, there may be considerable disagreement. The first is known as the Heteronomous Phase. Assess the usefulness of Religious Ethics as an ethical approach to business.
This suggests that our characters are determined by our upbringing and experiences. To what extent are ethical theories helpful when considering ethical business practise.
A form of Hard Determinism that contrasts and argues this view is scientific determinism; this approach states that science tells us that for every physical event there is a physical cause.
Darrow was a defence lawyer who in the trial of Leob and Leopold used hard determinism to suggest that we are not free thus we cannot make moral decisions.
Psychological determinism is another form of Hard Determinism. This overarching maxim must be considered when applying the four aforementioned steps. Are we free to do good?. How We Make Moral Decisions.
By Nina Wang. For many people, flipping a switch seems more acceptable than pushing a man, even if both actions have the same outcome.
it's common to discuss. Free Will and Determinism: A Summary. Discuss.  ‘Our freedom to make ethical choices is an illusion.’ Discuss.
 Critically assess the claim that people are free to make moral decisions.  ‘Our ethical decisions are the result of social conditioning’. Discuss. . The first step in analyzing moral issues is obvious but not always easy: Get the facts. Some moral issues create controversies simply because we do not bother to check the facts.
This first step, although obvious, is also among the most important and the most frequently overlooked. People are not objects to be manipulated; it is a violation. People are not free to make moral decisions. Discuss  Is it right to say that our actions are determined, or are they free?
Hard determinists argue that when we make a. Ethics A2 OCR past paper questions. Discuss. 'Our ethical decisions are merely the result of social conditioning.' Discuss.
'Natural Law is the most reliable approach when making decisions about premarital sex.' Discuss. Critically assess the claim that people are free to make moral decisions. assess the claim that people are free to make moral decisions (35) Libertarians support the view that people have free will and so we are free to make moral decisions.
For a Libertarian, the key evidence for this is the act of decision making in our daily lives.People are not free to make moral decisions discuss